Until recently paediatric tuberculosis rates were in decline in developed countries, but more recently there has been a significant change in these trends. Tuberculosis in British Columbia (BC) is centralized and all paediatric cases diagnosed between 1979 and 1988 were reviewed. There were 252 notifications during the study period but 50 cases were excluded (31 extrapulmonary cases, 11 with missing records and 8 because of incorrect diagnoses). There were 109 (54%) female patients. The age range was 4 months-15 years (6.4 +/- 4.1 years). 52% were 5 years old or less. 75 (37.1%) were aboriginal Canadians, 61 (30.2%) were Asian, 50 (24.8%) were Caucasian and 16 (8%) were included in miscellaneous or unknown groups. Primary pulmonary disease occurred in 197 (97.5%); the remaining 5 had post-primary disease. A history of close contact was elicited in 158 children (78.2%). All but 8 (4%) had a positive PPD response to 5TU. 40% of children had symptoms, the most frequent being cough (51%) and fever (28.4%). Mycobacteriology was carried out in 169 (83.7%) children. Bacteriologic confirmation was achieved in 45 patients (22.2%). Chest X-rays were reviewed in 186 cases. Lymphadenopathy occurred in 93.5%, with hilar (34%) and combined hilar-paratracheal (26%) being the commonest findings. The majority of patients were treated with isoniazid and rifampin, with a minority receiving streptomycin or pyrazinamide in the initial intensive phase. 14 (6.9%) children had adverse reactions to their drugs but these were rapidly reversed with the withdrawal of the responsible drug. Response to therapy was excellent and there were no deaths.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LT95700007
View details for PubMedID 8219178