Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and elevated total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratios are independently associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. In observational studies, every 1-mg/dL increment in HDL-C is associated with a 2% decreased risk of coronary artery disease in men and 3% decreased risk in women. On average, HDL-C levels are lower in men than in women, and are lower in whites than in blacks. Low HDL-C has also been found to be linked to higher risk of ischemic stroke, degree of carotid atherosclerosis, increased atherosclerotic progression as measured by coronary arteriography, higher coronary mortality among people with cardiovascular disease, and the development of coronary artery disease among patients with diabetes mellitus.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166228700003
View details for PubMedID 11374848