Indications for nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) are expanding; however, high-risk patients have more ischemic complications. Surgical devascularization of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) prior to NSM can reduce complications. This study reports perfusion patterns and complications in high-risk patients undergoing 2-stage NSM.Surgical devascularization of the NAC was performed 3-6 weeks prior to NSM in 28 women. Risk factors included ptosis, obesity, smoking, prior breast surgery, and radiation. Using indocyanine green (ICG)-based fluorescence and an infrared camera, blood inflow was visualized intraoperatively. NAC perfusion patterns were classified as: V1, underlying breast; V2, surrounding skin; V3 = V1 + V2, or V4, capillary fill following devascularization. Ischemic complications were analyzed.Baseline perfusion for 54 breasts was 35 % V1, 32 % V2, and 33 % V3. Increasing ptosis was associated with V1 pattern: 86 % for grade 3, 31 % for grade 2, and 18 % for grade 1. Postdevascularization epidermolysis was observed in 63 % of V1 baseline, 41 % of V2, and 22 % of V3 (P = .042) and after NSM in 26 % for V1, 7 % for V2, and 6 % for V3 (P = .131). Ptosis was significantly associated with epidermolysis postdevascularization (P = .002) and NSM (P = .002). Smoking and BMI =30 were related to increased ischemic complications. Two or more risk factors were associated with postdevascularization ischemic changes (P = .026), but were not significant after NSM. Nipple loss was not observed, but 2 patients underwent partial areolar resection.Adaptive circulatory changes after devascularization allow tissues to tolerate the additional ischemic challenge of mastectomy. Our findings support extending 2-staged operations to high-risk women previously considered unsuitable for NSM.
View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-016-5201-8
View details for PubMedID 27038458