Gastrointestinal endoscopy is the primary diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel enteroscopy, and colonoscopy are well-established standards for initial evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding, and have been used effectively for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Although thermal, injection, and mechanical methods have been the mainstay of endoscopic therapy, promising new technologies such as endoscopic ultrasound and wireless capsule endoscopy will further advance our ability to improve morbidity and mortality from severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Herein we review current standards and recent advances in the endoscopic management of upper, lower, and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.
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