Solid organ transplant recipients commonly are infected with hepatitis viruses, are immunosuppressed, and have other potential hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors.We studied de novo HCC incidence arising after transplant using U.S. registry data (223,660 recipients, 1987-2005). We used proportional hazards regression to identify HCC risk factors and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare HCC risk with that in the general population.Based on 74 cases reported by transplant centers to the registry, HCC incidence was 6.5 per 100,000 person-years among kidney, heart, and lung (non-liver) recipients and 25 per 100,000 person-years among liver recipients. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence among non-liver recipients was independently associated with hepatitis B surface antigenemia (hazard ratio [HR] 9.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-33), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HR 6.9, 95% CI 2.5-19), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.6). Among liver recipients, HCC incidence was associated with advancing age (P<0.001), male sex (HR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4-16), HCV infection (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.2), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.2). Among non-liver recipients, overall HCC incidence was similar to the general population (SIR 0.8) but elevated among those with HCV (3.4) or hepatitis B surface antigenemia (6.5). Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence among liver transplant recipients was elevated overall (SIR 3.4) and especially among those with HCV (5.0) or diabetes mellitus (6.2).Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence is elevated among liver transplant recipients and subsets of non-liver recipients. These risk factors indicate the need for improved control of viral hepatitis after solid organ transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181837761
View details for Web of Science ID 000259594600007
View details for PubMedID 18813102
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2714173