Patients with relapsed or refractory urothelial carcinoma (UC) have poor prognosis coupled with few options for systemic treatment. The role of angiogenesis in the evolution of cancers has been established, and studies have shown that it plays a key role in the pathogenesis of UC. Many targeted agents have been used in phase I-II trials for the treatment of UC, with encouraging but modest results. Recently, studies combining angiogenesis inhibitors with other chemotherapeutic agents were able to achieve objective responses higher than most commonly used second-line therapies in UC. Future efforts in investigating these therapies in UC rely on identification of biomarkers and other predictors of response to anti-VEGF therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1758834016667179
View details for Web of Science ID 000391771800004
View details for PubMedID 28203296
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5298449