Pharmaceuticals and Stem Cells in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Wishful Thinking? WORLD NEUROSURGERY Sivanesan, S., Tan, A., Jeyaraj, R., Lam, J., Gole, M., Hardan, A., Ashkan, K., Rajadas, J. 2017; 98: 659-672


Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by abnormal patterns of attention, and impaired social and communication skills. ASDs are also associated with a number of functional challenges and potentially harmful deficits, including restricted and repetitive behaviors, anxiety, irritability, seizures, and self-harm. Although the exact causes of ASDs are currently unknown, it is suggested that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors play critical roles. Recent findings support evidence for synaptic defects and impairments in brain information processing that are linked to social and perceptual skills. Owing to the clinical heterogeneity and lack of precise diagnostic tools, current therapeutic approaches aimed at managing ASD-associated conditions are not definitive. In this review, we seek to provide a contemporary account of the key pathological events pertaining to autism: the theory of oxidative stress and inflammatory causes; ideas of immune dysfunction; the probable biomarkers that can be used for diagnostics - and the use of pharmaceuticals and stem cells as possible candidates for the treatment of ASDs.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.09.100

View details for Web of Science ID 000397028300082