This paper calls for a broadening of the context within which we study responses to traumatic stress, the course of recovery, components of effective interventions, and assessments of outcome. Acute stress reactions to trauma as a spectrum include anxiety, dissociative, and depressive symptoms. The course of these symptoms may vary, with fluctuations between intrusion (positive) and avoidance/numbing/dissociative (negative) symptoms that may complicate assessment, treatment-seeking, and course of recovery. Components of effective treatments including affect management, cognitive restructuring, and social integration are discussed. Finally, a broader view of outcome assessment in such research is called for, including not just reduction in psychopathological symptoms but attention to coping styles, affect management, resilience, social reorganization, and sensitivity to subsequent trauma.
View details for PubMedID 16150672