Introduction This study's objective is to compare the overall survivals (OSs) and various parameters of patients with 1-3 versus = 4 brain metastases post-CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS) (Accuray, Sunnyvale, California) alone. Methods Charts of 150 patients, from 2009-2014, treated with only CKRS for brain metastases were reviewed retrospectively for overall survival (OS) and patient, tumor, and imaging characteristics. Parameters included demographics, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance scores, number and control of extracranial disease (ECD) sites, cause of death (COD), histology, tumor volume (TV), and post-CKRS whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The imaging characteristics assessed were time of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable imaging or local failure (LF), and distal brain failure (DBF). Patients and their data were divided into those with 1-3 (group 1) versus = 4 brain metastases (group 2). For each CR and LF patient, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC)), and ANC/ALC ratio (NLR) were obtained, when available, at the time of CKRS. Results Both group 1 and group 2 had a median OS of 13 months. The patient median age for the 115 group 1 patients versus the 35 group 2 patients was 62 versus 56 years. Group 1 had slightly more males and group 2, females. The predominant ECOG score for each group was 1 and the number of ECD sites was one and two, respectively. Uncontrolled ECD occurred in the majority of both group 1 and group 2 patients. The main COD was ECD in both groups. The prevalent tumor histology for groups 1 and 2 was non-small cell lung carcinoma. Median TVs were 1.08 cc versus 1.42 cc for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The majority of patients in both groups did not undergo post-CKRS WBRT. Imaging outcomes were LC (CR, PR, or stable imaging) in 93 (80.9%) and 26 (74.3%) group 1 and 2 patients, of whom 32 (27.8%) and six (17.1%) had CR; 38 (33.0%) and 18 (51.4%), PR and 23 (20.0%) and two (5.7%), stable imaging; LF was the outcome in 22 (19.1%) and nine (25.7%) patients, and DBF occurred in 62 (53.9%) and 21 (60.0%), respectively. Uni- and multivariable analyses showed the independent parameters of a lower ECOG score, a greater number of ECD sites and uncontrolled ECD were significantly associated with greater mortality risk with and without accounting for other covariates. At CKRS, 19 group 1 and 2 CR patients had a mean ANC of 5.88 K/µL and a mean ALC of 1.31 K/µL and 13 (68%) of 19 had NLRs = five, while 11 with LFs had a mean ANC of 5.22 K/µL and a mean ALC of 0.93 K/µL and seven (64%) had NLRs > five. An NLR = five and high ALC was associated with a CR and an NLR > five and a low ALC with an LF. Conclusions Median OS post-CKRS was 13 months for both patients with 1-3 brain metastases and with = 4. This is the only study in the literature to evaluate OS in patients with 1-3 and = 4 brain metastases who were treated with CKRS alone. For groups 1 and 2 patients combined, 119 (79.3%) had LC and 38 (25.3%) had CR. The ANC, ALC, and NLR values are likely predictive of CR and LF outcomes.
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