Bone healing involves complex biological pathways and interactions among various cell types and microenvironments. Among them, the monocyte-macrophage-osteoclast line-age and the mesenchymal stem cell-osteoblast lineage are critical, in addition to an initial inflammatory microenvironment. These cellular interactions induce the necessary inflammatory milieu and provide the cells for bone regeneration and immune modulation. Increasing age is accompanied with a rise in the basal state of inflammation, potentially impairing osteogenesis.Translational research has shown multiple interactions between inflammation, ageing, and bone regeneration. This review presents recent, relevant considerations regarding the effects of inflammation and ageing on bone healing.
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