Scavenger receptor B type 1 : Expression, Molecular Regulation, and Cholesterol Transport Function. Journal of lipid research Shen, W., Asthana, S., Kraemer, F. B., Azhar, S. 2018


Cholesterol is required for maintenance of plasma membrane fluidity and integrity and for many cellular functions. Cellular cholesterol can be obtained from lipoproteins in a selective pathway of HDL-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake without parallel apolipoprotein uptake. Scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) is a cell surface HDL receptor that mediates HDL-CE uptake. It is most abundantly expressed in liver, where it provides cholesterol for bile acid synthesis, and in steroidogenic tissues, where it delivers cholesterol needed for storage or steroidogenesis in rodents. SR-B1 transcription is regulated by trophic hormones in the adrenal gland, ovary, and testis; in the liver and elsewhere, SR-B1 is subject to post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation. SR-B1 operates in several metabolic processes and contributes to pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation, HCV infection, and other conditions. Here, we summarize characteristics of the selective uptake pathway and involvement of microvillar channels as facilitators of selective HDL-CE uptake. We also present the potential mechanisms of SR-B1-mediated selective cholesterol transport; the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulation of SR-B1; and the impact of gene variants on expression and function of human SR-B1. A better understanding of this unique pathway and the role of SR-B1 may yield improved therapies for a wide variety of conditions.

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