The innate immune sensors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), can recognize not only exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), but also endogenous molecules created upon tissue injury, sterile inflammation, and degeneration. Endogenous ligands are called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and include endogenous molecules released from activated and necrotic cells as well as damaged extracellular matrix. TLRs and NLRs can interact with various ligands derived from PAMPs and DAMPs, leading to activation and/or modulation of intracellular signalling pathways. Intensive research on the innate immune sensors, TLRs and NLRs, has brought new insights into the pathogenesis of not only various infectious and rheumatic diseases, but also aseptic foreign body granuloma and septic inflammation of failed total hip replacements (THRs). In this review, recent knowledge is summarized on the innate immune system, including TLRs and NLRs and their danger signals, with special reference to their possible role in the adverse local host response to THRs.
View details for PubMedID 29130033