The incidence of hip fracture in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is considerably higher than that in the general age- and sex-matched population. Although medical therapy for chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has changed considerably over the last decade, rates of hip fracture in the entire ESRD population have not been well-characterized. Herein, we evaluated temporal trends in rates of hip fracture, in-hospital mortality, and costs of associated hospital stay in ESRD. We identified hospitalizations for hip fracture from 2003 to 2011 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a representative national database inclusive of all ages and payers. We incorporated data from the United States Renal Data System and the US Census to calculate population-specific rates. Between 2003 and 2011, we identified 47,510 hip fractures in the ESRD population. The overall rate of hip fracture was 10.04/1000 person-years. The rate was 3.73/1000 person-years in patients aged less than 65 years, and 20.97/1000 person-years in patients aged 65 or older. Age- and sex-standardized rates decreased by 12.6% from 2003 (10.23/1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.99/1000 to 12.47/1000) to 2011 (8.94/1000 person-years; 95% CI, 7.12/1000 to 10.75/1000). Hip fracture rates over time were virtually identical in patients aged less than 65 years; however, rates decreased by 15.3% among patients aged 65 years or older; rates declined more rapidly in older women compared with older men (p for interaction?=?0.047). In-hospital mortality rate after hip fracture operation declined by 26.7% from 2003 (8.6%; 95% CI, 6.8 to 10.4) to 2011 (6.3%; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.7). In ESRD, age- and sex-standardized hip fracture rates and associated in-hospital mortality have declined substantially over the last decade. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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