Shortening the time from surgery to the start of radiation (TS-RT) is a consideration for physicians and patients. Although the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends radiation to start within 6 weeks, a survival benefit with this metric remains controversial.To determine the association of delayed TS-RT with overall survival (OS) using a large cancer registry.In this observational cohort study, 25?216 patients with nonmetastatic stages III to IV head and neck cancer were identified from the National Cancer Database (NCDB).Patients received definitive surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy, with an interval duration defined as TS-RT.Overall survival as a function of TS-RT and the effect of clinicopathologic risk factors and accelerated fractionation.We identified 25?216 patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. There were 18?968 (75%) men and 6248 (25%) women and the mean (SD) age of the cohort was 59 (10.9) years. Of the 25?216 patients, 9765 (39%) had a 42-days or less TS-RT and 4735 (19%) had a 43- to 49-day TS-RT. Median OS was 10.5 years (95% CI, 10.0-11.1 years) for patients with a 42-days or less TS-RT, 8.2 years (95% CI, 7.4-8.6 years; absolute difference, -2.4 years, 95% CI, -1.5 to -3.2 years) for patients with a 43- to 49-day TS-RT, and 6.5 years (95% CI, 6.1-6.8 years; absolute difference, -4.1 years, 95% CI, -3.4 to -4.7 years) for those with a 50-days or more TS-RT. Multivariable analysis found that compared with a 42-days or less TS-RT, there was not a significant increase in mortality with a 43- to 49-day TS-RT (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04), although there was for a TS-RT of 50 days or more (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). A significant interaction was identified between TS-RT and disease site. Subgroup effect modeling found that a delayed TS-RT of 7 days resulted in significantly worse OS for patients with tonsil tumors (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43) though not other tumor subtypes. Accelerated fractionation of 5.2 fractions or more per week was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99) compared with standard fractionation.Delayed TS-RT of 50 days or more was associated with worse overall survival. The multidisciplinary care team should focus on shortening TS-RT to improve survival. Unavoidable delays may be an indication for accelerated fractionation or other dose intensification strategies.
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