"Live Cadaver" Model for Internal Carotid Artery Injury Simulation in Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery. Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.) Pacca, P., Jhawar, S. S., Seclen, D. V., Wang, E., Snyderman, C., Gardner, P. A., Aboud, E., Fernandez-Miranda, J. C. 2017; 13 (6): 732–38


BACKGROUND: Intraoperative injury of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is the most dreaded complication in endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) of skull base. Training for ICA injury is practically impossible in live operative settings.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a pulsatile perfusion-based live cadaveric model for ICA injury simulation in a laboratory setting. The major emphasis of the study was to evaluate various means of controlling acute bleeding and evaluating the practical utility of this model for training purposes.METHODS: Five embalmed, uninjected cadaveric heads were prepared for study by connecting to a pulsatile perfusion pump system filled with artificial blood solution. EES approaches were used to evaluate different types of ICA injuries similar to operative scenarios. Various methods of managing ICA injuries such as packing, clipping, and trapping, were evaluated. The educational advantages of the live cadaver model were assessed using questionnaires given to participants in a hands-on dissection course.RESULTS: The trainee was faced with several scenarios similar to those encountered during an actual intraoperative ICA injury. Packing, clipping, and trapping of the ICA injury were successfully achieved in all segments of the ICA. Clip-based reconstruction techniques were successfully developed. All trainees reported gaining new knowledge, learning new techniques. The responses to the questionnaire confirmed the significant educational value of this model.CONCLUSION: The live cadaver model presented here provides real-life experience with major vessel injury during EES in a laboratory setting. This model could significantly improve current training for the management of intraoperative vascular injuries during EES.

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