The medial temporal lobe can be divided in anterior, middle, and posterior segments. The anterior segment is formed by the uncus and hippocampal head, and it has extra and intraventricular structures. There are 2 main approaches to the uncohippocampal region, the anteromedial temporal lobectomy (Spencer's technique) and the transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (Yasargil's technique).In this video, we present the case of a 29-yr-old man with new onset of generalized seizures and a contrast-enhancing lesion in the left anterior segment of the medial temporal lobe compatible with high-grade glioma. He had a medical history of cervical astrocytoma at age 8 requiring craniospinal radiation therapy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement.The tumor was approached using a combined transsylvian transcisternal and transinferior insular sulcus approach to the extra and intraventricular aspects of the uncohippocampal region. It was resected completely, and the patient was neurologically intact after resection with no further seizures at 6-mo follow-up. The diagnosis was glioblastoma IDH-wild type, for which he underwent adjuvant therapy.Surgical anatomy and technical nuances of this approach are illustrated using a 3-dimensional video and anatomic dissections. The selective approach, when compared to an anteromedial temporal lobectomy, has the advantage of preserving the anterolateral temporal cortex, which is particularly relevant in dominant-hemisphere lesions, and the related fiber tracts, including the inferior fronto-occipital and inferior longitudinal fascicles, and most of the optic radiation fibers. The transsylvian approach, however, is technically and anatomically more challenging and potentially carries a higher risk of vascular injury and vasospasm.Page 1 and figures from Fernandez-Miranda JC et al, Microvascular Anatomy of the Medial Temporal Region: Part 1: Its Application to Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery, Operative Neurosurgery, 2010, Volume 67, issue 3, ons237-ons276, by permission of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (1:26-1:37 in video).Page 1 from Fernandez-Miranda JC et al, Three-Dimensio-nal Microsurgical and Tractographic Anatomy of the White Matter of the Human Brain, Neurosurgery, 2008, Volume 62, issue suppl_3, SHC989-SHC1028, by permission of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (1:54-1:56 in video).
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