The differential diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) infections in endemic areas is complicated by nonspecific early clinical manifestations. In this study, we describe an internally controlled, multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for the detection of DENV and YFV. The DENV-YFV assay demonstrated specific detection and had a dynamic range of 2.0-8.0 log10 copies/µL of eluate for each DENV serotype and YFV. Clinical performance was similar to a published pan-DENV assay: 48/48 acute-phase samples from dengue cases were detected in both assays. For YFV detection, mock samples were prepared with nine geographically diverse YFV isolates over a range of concentrations. The DENV-YFV assay detected 62/65 replicates, whereas 54/65 were detected using a reference YFV rRT-PCR. Given the reemergence of DENV and YFV in areas around the world, the DENV-YFV assay should be a useful tool to narrow the differential diagnosis and provide early case detection.
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