Inflammation, an essential tissue response to extrinsic/intrinsic damage, is a very dynamic process in terms of complexity and extension of cellular and metabolic involvement. The aim of the inflammatory response is to eliminate the pathogenic initiator with limited collateral damage of the inflamed tissue, followed by a complex tissue repair to the preinflammation phenotype. Persistent inflammation is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of many musculoskeletal diseases including ageing-related pathologies such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and sarcopaenia. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation and its resolution is therefore critical for the development of effective regenerative, and therapeutic strategies in orthopaedics.
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