To investigate the relationship between acute perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) lesions occurring within the first hours after a TIA or a minor brain infarction (BI) and the incidence of new BI detected on a systematic MRI at 1 week.Consecutive patients who experienced a TIA or BI with a neurologic deficit that lasted <24 hours, did not receive any revascularization therapy (thrombolysis/thrombectomy), and underwent DWI/PWI at baseline and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)/DWI 1 week after symptom onset were enrolled. Investigators blinded to clinical information independently assessed the presence of acute ischemic lesions on baseline DWI/PWI and follow-up DWI and FLAIR. Baseline and follow-up MRIs were then compared to determine the occurrence and location of new infarctions.Sixty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Median (IQR) ABCD2 score was 4 (3-5). Median delay from onset to baseline and follow-up MRI was 5 (2-10) hours and 6 (5-7) days, respectively. MRI revealed an acute ischemic lesion on DWI and/or PWI in 38 patients. Nine patients (14%) had a new infarction on follow-up MRI. Each had a PWI and 4 had a DWI lesion on baseline MRI. All new BIs except one were asymptomatic and in the same location as the acute PWI lesion.Our results showed that 30% of the acute focal PWI lesions detected after a TIA are associated with a new BI at 1 week. Those new BIs may result from the progression of the initial ischemic injury.
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