The effects of a functionally-graded scaffold and bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells on steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis. Biomaterials Maruyama, M., Nabeshima, A., Pan, C., Behn, A. W., Thio, T., Lin, T., Pajarinen, J., Kawai, T., Takagi, M., Goodman, S. B., Yang, Y. P. 2018; 187: 39–46


Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a debilitating disease that may progress to femoral head collapse and subsequently, degenerative arthritis. Although injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) is often performed with core decompression (CD) in the early stage of ONFH, these treatments are not always effective in prevention of disease progression and femoral head collapse. We previously described a novel 3D printed, customized functionally-graded scaffold (FGS) that improved bone growth in the femoral head after CD in a normal healthy rabbit, by providing structural and mechanical guidance. The present study demonstrates similar results of the FGS in a rabbit steroid-induced osteonecrosis model. Furthermore, the injection of BMMCs into the CD decreased the osteonecrotic area in the femoral head. Thus, the combination of FGS and BMMC provides a new therapy modality that may improve the outcome of CD for early stage of ONFH by providing both enhanced biological and biomechanical cues to promote bone regeneration in the osteonecrotic area.

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