Paramedian Supracerebellar Approach in Semi-Sitting Position for Endoscopic Resection of Pineal Cyst: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.) Fernandez-Miranda, J. C. 2018


In this video, we present the case of a 41-yr-old female with new onset of recurrent syncopal episodes. She underwent extensive evaluations and diagnostic work-up by cardiology and neurology, excluding any other cause than a large pineal cyst that was found on magnetic resonance imaging.Surgical indications for pineal cyst resection are very limited as most pineal cyst can be treated conservatively. Recurrent drop-attacks (without loss of consciousness) or syncopal episodes (with brief loss of consciousness) have been associated with pineal cysts secondary to a possible ball valve effect with shift of position causing sudden obstruction of the ventricular system followed by rapid rising of intracranial pressure.Several approaches, different positions, and alternative surgical techniques (microscopic vs endoscopic) have been proposed for resection of pineal region lesions. The semi-sitting position provides excellent exposure of the pineal region secondary to gravity-based retraction of the cerebellum, and carries minimal risk of air venous embolism when head elevation is reduced to 30° and lower extremities are elevated. The paramedian supracerebellar approach is less invasive and faster than midline supracerebellar approach, because it requires exposure of just 1 transverse sinus (nondominant for centered lesions) and avoids exposure of the torcula. The endoscopic technique greatly improves the ergonomics of the approach when compared to the microscope based technique, and provides excellent visualization of all the neurovascular structures in the pineal region.Surgical resection was successfully performed with no complications and complete cyst resection. Patient was discharged on postoperative day 1 and remains free of syncopal episodes.The patient signed informed consent including the use of photographic and video material for educational or academic purposes.

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