Digital Health and Sleep-Disordered Breathing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Rosa, T., Bellardi, K., Viana, A. J., Ma, Y., Capasso, R. 2018; 14 (9): 1605–20


STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep disorders in most individuals remain undiagnosed and without treatment. The use of novel tools and mobile technology has the potential to increase access to diagnosis. The objective of this study was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available literature evaluating the accuracy of smartphones and portable devices to screen for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).METHODS: A literature review was performed between February 18, 2017 and March 15, 2017. We included studies evaluating adults with SDB symptoms through the use mobile phones and/or portable devices, using standard polysomnography as a comparison. A qualitative evaluation of studies was performed with the QUADAS-2 rating. A bivariate random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain the estimated sensitivity and specificity of screening SDB for four groups of devices: bed/mattress-based, contactless, contact with three or more sensors, and contact with fewer than three sensors. For each group, we also reported positive predictive values and negative predictive values for mild, moderate, and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening.RESULTS: Of the 22 included studies, 18 were pooled in the meta-analysis. Devices that were bed/mattress-based were found to have the best sensitivity overall (0.921, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.870, 0.953). The sensitivity of contactless devices to detect mild OSA cases was the highest of all groups (0.976, 95% CI 0.899, 0.995), but provided a high false positive rate (0.487, 95% CI 0.137, 0.851). The remaining groups of devices showed low sensitivity and heterogeneous results.CONCLUSIONS: This study evidenced the limitations and potential use of portable devices in screening patients for SDB. Additional research should evaluate the accuracy of devices when used at home.

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