Risk Stratification and Treatment of Coronary Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Kidney Disease. Seminars in nephrology Shroff, G. R., Chang, T. I. 2018; 38 (6): 582–99


Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease have an enormous burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but, paradoxically, their representation in randomized trials for the evaluation and management of coronary artery disease has been limited. Clinicians therefore are faced with the conundrum of synergizing evidence from observational studies, expert opinion, and extrapolation from the general population to provide care to this complex and clinically distinct patient population. In this review, we address clinical risk stratification of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease using traditional cardiovascular risk factors, noninvasive functional and structural cardiac imaging, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiovascular biomarkers. We highlight the unique characteristics of this population, including the high competing risk of all-cause mortality relative to the risk of major adverse cardiac events, likely owing to important contributions from nonatherosclerotic mechanisms. We further discuss the management of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease, including evidence pertaining to medical management, coronary revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Our discussion includes considerations of drug-eluting versus bare metal stents for percutaneous coronary intervention and off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Finally, we address currently ongoing randomized trials, from which clinicians are optimistic about receiving guidance regarding the best strategies to incorporate into their practice for the evaluation and management of coronary artery disease in this high-risk population.

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