International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches-Chronic Kidney Disease (ISCHEMIA-CKD): Rationale and design AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Bangalore, S., Maron, D. J., Fleg, J. L., O'Brien, S. M., Herzog, C. A., Stone, G. W., Mark, D. B., Spertus, J. A., Alexander, K. P., Sidhu, M. S., Chertow, G. M., Boden, W. E., Hochman, J. S., ISCHEMIA-CKD Res Grp 2018; 205: 42–52


Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and stable ischemic heart disease are at markedly increased risk of cardiovascular events. Prior trials comparing a strategy of optimal medical therapy (OMT) with or without revascularization have largely excluded patients with advanced CKD. Whether a routine invasive approach when compared with a conservative strategy is beneficial in such patients is unknown.ISCHEMIA-CKD is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded randomized trial designed to determine the comparative effectiveness of an initial invasive strategy (cardiac catheterization and optimal revascularization [percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, if suitable] plus OMT) versus a conservative strategy (OMT alone, with cardiac catheterization and revascularization [percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, if suitable] reserved for failure of OMT) on long-term clinical outcomes in 777 patients with advanced CKD (defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73m2 or on dialysis) and moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to the invasive or a conservative strategy. The primary end point is a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Major secondary endpoints are a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest; angina control; and disease-specific quality of life. Safety outcomes such as initiation of maintenance dialysis and a composite of initiation of maintenance dialysis or death will be reported. The trial is projected to have 80% power to detect a 22% to 24% reduction in the primary composite end point with the invasive strategy when compared with the conservative strategy.ISCHEMIA-CKD will determine whether an initial invasive management strategy improves clinical outcomes when added to OMT in patients with advanced CKD and stable ischemic heart disease.

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