Recognizing the significant biological and clinical heterogeneity of mature T cell and natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphomas, the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation invited experts to develop clinical practice recommendations related to the role of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) for specific histological subtypes. We used the GRADE methodology to aid in moving from evidence to decision making and ultimately to generating final recommendations. Auto-HCT in front-line consolidation is recommended in peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL), anaplastic large cell lymphoma-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALCL-ALK)-negative, NK/T cell (disseminated), enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL), and hepatosplenic lymphomas. Auto-HCT in relapsed-sensitive disease is recommended for NK/T cell (localized and disseminated), EATL, subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell, and ALCL-ALK-positive lymphomas. Auto-HCT is also recommended for PTCL-NOS, AITL, and ALCL-ALK-negative lymphomas if not performed as front-line therapy. Auto-HCT in refractory (primary or relapsed) disease is not recommended for any of the histological subtypes discussed. Allo-HCT in front-line consolidation is recommended for NK/T cell (disseminated), adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL; acute and lymphoma type), and hepatosplenic lymphomas. Allo-HCT for relapsed-sensitive disease is recommended for PTCL-NOS, AITL, ALCL-ALK-negative, ALCL-ALK-positive, NK/T cell (localized and disseminated), ATLL (acute, lymphoma type, smoldering/chronic), mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome (advanced stage IIB-IVB or tumor stage/extracutaneous), EATL, subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell, and hepatosplenic lymphoma. Allo-HCT in refractory (primary or relapsed refractory) disease is recommended for any aforementioned histological subtypes. Emerging novel therapies will likely be incorporated into the pretransplantation, peritransplantation, and post-transplantation algorithms (auto-HCT or allo-HCT) with the goals of optimizing efficacy and improving outcomes. We acknowledge that there are unique clinical scenarios not covered by these recommendations that may require individualized decisions.
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