BACKGROUND: Staging laparoscopy (SL) is used to avoid resection failure and thus increase the curative resection rate. SL utilization in extra-hepatic biliary tumors (EHBT) is variable.METHODS: Data from 1090 patients with potentially resectable EHBT including gallbladder (GBC), distal (DC), and hilar (HC) subtypes were retrospectively collected from 10 academic centers (2000-2015).RESULTS: The SL utilization rate increased over time and was significantly higher in GBC than DC and HC. SL yield was 16.8% and did not differ between groups or over time. In patients undergoing attempted resection with prior SL, the curative resection rate did not differ between subtypes. In patients undergoing attempted resection without prior SL, the curative resection rate was less in GBC compared with DC or HC. After matching cohorts by inverse probability weighting, prior SL was associated with curative resection in GBC only (odds ratio [OR], 2.41, 95% CI, 1.36-4.27). On multivariable regression analysis, elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), low serum albumin, and GBC were strong predictors of distant disease on SL. After categorizing patients undergoing SL into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups based on these parameters, SL yield improved progressively from 10.0% to 19.6% to 52.6%.CONCLUSIONS: We recommend routine SL for patients with GBC, particularly with elevated CA19-9 level and/or decreased serum albumin.
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