Proximal Branches of the Anterior Cerebral Artery: Anatomic Study and Applications to Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery. Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.) Najera, E., Truong, H. Q., Belo, J. T., Borghei-Razavi, H., Gardner, P. A., Fernandez-Miranda, J. 2019


BACKGROUND: The endoscopic endonasal approach is a surgical alternative for midline anterior skull base tumors. A detailed understanding of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) branches' anatomy from an endonasal perspective is essential for avoiding vascular complications.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, from an endonasal perspective, the anatomic variations of the ACA and its proximal branches, specifically the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH), and the fronto-orbital (FOA) and frontopolar (FPA) arteries.METHODS: We study the origin, course, branching pattern, diameter, and relationship between the proximal ACA branches and the optic apparatus and olfactory tract in 25 head specimens.RESULTS: The RAH was present in all hemispheres and originated within 3±1.5 mm of the AcomA, with a 0.4±0.1 mm diameter. Based on its relationship with the A1 segment, we observed three RAH courses: anterior (40%), superior (22%), and posterior (38%). The FOA was present in all cases, a mean of 6±4 mm from the AcomA, with a 0.7±0.4 mm diameter. The FOA arose mainly from the A2 (70%), with three courses in relation to the olfactory tract: crossing its proximal third (54%), crossing its middle third (31%), and running parallel to it along the gyrus rectus (15%). The FPA was present in 92% of the hemispheres, a mean of 10±5 mm from the AcomA, always arising from the A2 and coursing anteriorly within the interhemispheric fissure towards the frontal pole.CONCLUSION: The RAH, FOA, and FPA can be differentiated by origin, course, and destination using the A1 segment, olfactory tract, and interhemispheric fissure, respectively, as surgical landmarks.

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