Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) treatment by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is effective, but AVM obliteration following SRS may take two years or longer. MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL) may detect brain AVMs with high sensitivity. We determined whether brain MRI with ASL may accurately detect residual AVM following SRS treatment.We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent brain AVM evaluation by DSA between June 2010 and June 2015. Inclusion criteria were: (1) AVM treatment by SRS, (2) follow?-?up MRI with ASL at least 30 months after SRS, (3) DSA within 3 months of the follow-up MRI with ASL, and (4) no intervening AVM treatment between the MRI and DSA. Four neuroradiologists blindly and independently reviewed follow-up MRIs. Primary outcome measure was residual AVM indicated by abnormal venous ASL signal.15 patients (12 females, mean age 29 years) met inclusion criteria. There were three posterior fossa AVMs and 12 supratentorial AVMs. Spetzler-Martin (SM) Grades were: SM1 (8%), SM2 (33%), SM3 (17%), SM4 (25%), and SM5 (17%). DSA demonstrated residual AVM in 10 patients. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of venous ASL signal for predicting residual AVM were 100% (95% CI: 0.9-1.0), 95% (95% CI: 0.7-1.0), 98% (95% CI: 0.9-1.0), and 100% (95% CI: 0.8-1.0), respectively. High inter-reader agreement as found by Fleiss' Kappa analysis (k?=?0.92; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0; p?
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