Whereas the original Stanford protocol relied on a tiered approach to care to avoid unnecessary surgery, it did not address the issue of surgical relapse, a common concern among sleep medicine specialists. With 3 decades of experience since the original 2-tiered Powell-Riley protocol was introduced and the role of evolving skeletal techniques and upper airway stimulation, we are pleased to present our current protocol. This update includes emphasis on the facial skeletal development with impact on function including nasal breathing, and the incorporation of upper airway stimulation. The increased versatility of palatopharyngoplasty as an adjunctive procedure is also discussed.
View details for PubMedID 30709539