Effect of Titrating Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) With an Esophageal Pressure-Guided Strategy vs an Empirical High PEEP-FIO2 Strategy on Death and Days Free From Mechanical Ventilation Among Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome A Randomized Clinical Trial Beitler, J. R., Sarge, T., Banner-Goodspeed, V. M., Gong, M. N., Cook, D., Novack, V., Loring, S. H., Talmor, D., Loring, S., Banner-Goodspeed, V., Fish, E., Jinadasa, S., Ritz, R., Previtera, J., Lee, L., Clarke, F., Piraino, T., Levitt, J., Vojnik, R., Park, P., Brierley, K., Haas, C., Weirauch, A., Fan, E., Matte, A., Harris, R., Kone, M., Heard, S., Longtine, K., Lellouche, F., Bouchard, P., Rubinson, L., McGrain, J., Griesdale, D. G., Foster, D., Oeckler, R., Amsbaugh, A., Jimenez, E., Danesh, V., Slutsky, A. S., Hall, J., Hubmayr, R. D., Rubenfeld, G., Schoenfeld, D., EPVent-2 Study Grp AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2019: 846–57


Adjusting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to offset pleural pressure might attenuate lung injury and improve patient outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).To determine whether PEEP titration guided by esophageal pressure (PES), an estimate of pleural pressure, was more effective than empirical high PEEP-fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) in moderate to severe ARDS.Phase 2 randomized clinical trial conducted at 14 hospitals in North America. Two hundred mechanically ventilated patients aged 16 years and older with moderate to severe ARDS (Pao2:Fio2 =200 mm Hg) were enrolled between October 31, 2012, and September 14, 2017; long-term follow-up was completed July 30, 2018.Participants were randomized to PES-guided PEEP (n?=?102) or empirical high PEEP-Fio2 (n?=?98). All participants received low tidal volumes.The primary outcome was a ranked composite score incorporating death and days free from mechanical ventilation among survivors through day 28. Prespecified secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality, days free from mechanical ventilation among survivors, and need for rescue therapy.Two hundred patients were enrolled (mean [SD] age, 56 [16] years; 46% female) and completed 28-day follow-up. The primary composite end point was not significantly different between treatment groups (probability of more favorable outcome with PES-guided PEEP: 49.6% [95% CI, 41.7% to 57.5%]; P?=?.92). At 28 days, 33 of 102 patients (32.4%) assigned to PES-guided PEEP and 30 of 98 patients (30.6%) assigned to empirical PEEP-Fio2 died (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, -11.1% to 14.6%]; P?=?.88). Days free from mechanical ventilation among survivors was not significantly different (median [interquartile range]: 22 [15-24] vs 21 [16.5-24] days; median difference, 0 [95% CI, -1 to 2] days; P?=?.85). Patients assigned to PES-guided PEEP were significantly less likely to receive rescue therapy (4/102 [3.9%] vs 12/98 [12.2%]; risk difference, -8.3% [95% CI, -15.8% to -0.8%]; P?=?.04). None of the 7 other prespecified secondary clinical end points were significantly different. Adverse events included gross barotrauma, which occurred in 6 patients with PES-guided PEEP and 5 patients with empirical PEEP-Fio2.Among patients with moderate to severe ARDS, PES-guided PEEP, compared with empirical high PEEP-Fio2, resulted in no significant difference in death and days free from mechanical ventilation. These findings do not support PES-guided PEEP titration in ARDS.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01681225.

View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2019.0555

View details for Web of Science ID 000460351600015

View details for PubMedID 30776290