BACKGROUND: Calcimimetics have been shown to be effective and safe therapies for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), a serious complication of disordered mineral metabolism associated with dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. Etelcalcetide, a recently approved intravenous calcimimetic, reduces serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, and fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations. Here we report the first integrated safety profile of etelcalcetide using pooled data from five pivotal clinical trials.METHODS: This analysis included data from patients receiving hemodialysis with moderate to severe sHPT enrolled in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials; a randomized active-controlled (with cinacalcet) trial; and two single-arm, open-label extension trials. Patients initially received etelcalcetide intravenously 5 mg three times weekly (TIW) after hemodialysis; with potential dose increases of 2.5 or 5 mg at 4-week intervals to a maximum dose of 15 mg TIW, depending on serum PTH and calcium levels. The nature, frequency, and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and changes in laboratory parameters were assessed.RESULTS: Overall, we evaluated 1023 patients from the placebo-controlled trials, 683 from the active-controlled trial, and 1299 from open-label extensions. The frequency and nature of common treatment-emergent AEs reported for the etelcalcetide arm were consistent among the placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials. The most common AEs were those related to mineral metabolism (decreased blood calcium, hypophosphatemia, muscle spasms) or gastrointestinal abnormalities (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting). Hypocalcemia leading to discontinuation of either calcimimetic was experienced in = 1% of patients.CONCLUSIONS: This integrated safety assessment of etelcalcetide across placebo- and active-controlled trials showed an overall favorable risk/benefit profile, with safety similar to that of cinacalcet. Consistent with its mechanism of action, the most important risks associated with etelcalcetide were serum calcium reductions and hypocalcemia-related AEs; no new safety findings were identified in the pooled long-term extension trials.
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