Collateral blood flow measurement with intravoxel incoherent motion perfusion imaging in hyperacute brain stroke. Neurology Federau, C., Wintermark, M., Christensen, S., Mlynash, M., Marcellus, D. G., Zhu, G., Martin, B. W., Lansberg, M. G., Albers, G. W., Heit, J. J. 2019


OBJECTIVE: To determine if intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance perfusion can measure the quality of the collateral blood flow in the penumbra in hyperacute stroke.METHODS: A 6 b values IVIM MRI sequence was acquired in stroke patients with large vessel occlusion imaged <16 hours of last seen well. IVIM perfusion measures were evaluated in regions of interest drawn in the infarct core (D < 600 mm2/s), in the corresponding region in the contralateral hemisphere, and in the dynamic susceptibility contrast penumbra. In patients with a penumbra >15 mL, images were reviewed for the presence of a penumbra perfusion lesion on the IVIM f map, which was correlated with infarct size metrics. Statistical significance was tested using Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher exact test.RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were included. In the stroke core, IVIM f was significantly lower (4.6 ± 3.3%) compared to the healthy contralateral region (6.3 ± 2.2%, p < 0.001). In the 25 patients with a penumbra >15 mL, 9 patients had an IVIM penumbra perfusion lesion (56 ± 76 mL), and 16 did not. Patients with an IVIM penumbra perfusion lesion had a larger infarct core (82 ± 84 mL) at baseline, a larger infarct growth (68 ± 40 mL), and a larger final infarct size (126 ± 81 mL) on follow-up images compared to the patients without (resp. 20 ± 17 mL, p < 0.05; 13 ± 19 mL, p < 0.01; 29 ± 24 mL, p < 0.05). All IVIM penumbra perfusion lesions progressed to infarction despite thrombectomy treatment.CONCLUSIONS: IVIM is a promising tool to assess the quality of the collateral blood flow in hyperacute stroke. IVIM penumbra perfusion lesion may be a marker of nonsalvageable tissue despite treatment with thrombectomy, suggesting that the IVIM penumbra perfusion lesion might be counted to the stroke core, together with the DWI lesion.

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