Wear particles from total joint arthroplasties are constantly being generated throughout the lifetime of an implant. Since mesenchymal stem cells and osteoprogenitors from the bone marrow are the precursors of osteoblasts, the reaction of these cells to orthopaedic wear particles is critical to both initial osseointegration of implants and ongoing regeneration of the periprosthetic bed. Particles less than 5 microm can undergo phagocytosis by mature osteoblasts, with potential adverse effects on cellular viability, proliferation and function. The specific effects are dependent on particle composition and dose. Metal and polymer particles in non-toxic doses stimulate pro-inflammatory factor release more than ceramic particles of a similar size. The released factors inhibit markers of bone formation and are capable of stimulating osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Mesenchymal stem cells and osteoprogenitors are also profoundly affected by wear particles. Titanium and polymethylmethacrylate particles inhibit bone cell viability and proliferation, and downregulate markers of bone formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Future studies should delineate the molecular mechanisms by which particles adversely affect mesenchymal stems cells and the bone cell lineage and provide strategies to modulate these effects.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.08.023
View details for PubMedID 16949151