Periprosthetic bone loss induced by implant wear debris may be a combined effect of osteolysis and reduced bone formation resulting from particle-induced suppression of osteoprogenitor differentiation. This study investigated the time-dependent effects of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles on the osteogenic capability of bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells during the early phase of differentiation. Murine bone marrow cells were challenged with PMMA particles (0.30% v/v) on the first day of growth in osteogenic medium. Particles were removed from culture after 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after which cell growth in osteogenic medium was continued until the 15th day. Bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells exposed to particles during the first 5 days of differentiation showed complete, irreversible inhibition of proliferation, alkaline phosphatase expression, and mineralization. Osteoprogenitors exposed to particles for more than 5 days showed the same degree of inhibition, while those exposed to particles for less than 5 days showed a diminished inhibitory response. Conditioned medium from particle-treated cells did not suppress osteogenic development, demonstrating that suppression of osteogenesis was not due to secreted inhibitory factors. This study has shown that the early phase of osteoprogenitor differentiation is a crucial time period during which exposure to PMMA particles causes irreversible inhibition of osteogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20328
View details for PubMedID 17205559