To determine the effect of race, ethnicity, and census-tract-level composite socioeconomic status (SES) on retinoblastoma enucleation. This study augments Truong et al., providing multivariate analyses combining sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with more accurate SES measures. We hypothesized children from non-white, Hispanic, and lower socioeconomic backgrounds would have increased adjusted odds of enucleation.Retrospective cohort analysis.Setting: Multicenter population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Registries.Children aged 18 and under diagnosed with retinoblastoma between 2000-2014. Subjects were identified using International Classification of Diseases Oncology (ICD-O) site and morphology codes.Enucleation Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals RESULTS: Analysis of 959 retinoblastoma patients revealed that 70.8% were enucleated. Adjusted analyses showed associations between enucleation and Asian (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.00, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-3.71) or Black (2.42, 1.41-4.16) race, Hispanic ethnicity (1.69, 1.16-2.46), and low SES (1.68, 1.09-2.58). Significantly increased enucleation risk was associated with older age at diagnosis (Age 1-2 years 2.55, 1.80-3.61; >2 years 4.88, 2.57-9.25), unilateral disease (5.00, 3.45-7.14), and advanced stage (Regional 4.71, 2.51-8.84; Distant 3.15, 1.63-6.08). No interactions were observed between race, ethnicity, SES, and stage at diagnosis. Enucleation rates decreased over time across all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups.Children from non-white, Hispanic, and lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to receive enucleation. These associations are independent of stage of diagnosis, suggesting larger systemic disparities in retinoblastoma care. The origin of these differences requires further study and attention by clinicians and policy-makers.
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