Traditional imaging for the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer has relied on the tissue morphology of cancers in the background of normal patterns of fibroglandular breast tissue. X-ray mammography and ultrasound have been the primary modalities for the diagnosis and the work-up of breast cancer. New modalities have been validated including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). New pulse sequences in MRI combined with contrast enhancement kinetic perfusion curves have greatly enhanced detection of mammographically occult cancers. New modalities on the horizon include optical imaging, exploiting again the differential perfusion properties of cancers in a background of normal glandular tissue. Even more specificity can be ach eved with the addition of ductal or intravenous introduction of optical probes specific to tumor associated antigens such as the HER-2/neu receptor in aggressive breast cancers. Quantum dots and other fluorescent dyes coupled to peptides or other probes will greatly enhance our ability to detect cancers earlier and without ionizing radiation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000245817500005
View details for PubMedID 17645984