Risk factors for developing postprocedural microemboli following carotid interventions JOURNAL OF ENDOVASCULAR THERAPY Tedesco, M. M., Coogan, S. M., Dalman, R. L., Haukoos, J. S., Lane, B., Loh, C., Penkar, T. S., Lee, J. T. 2007; 14 (4): 561-567


To determine risk factors predictive of microemboli found on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) following carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) with distal protection and carotid endarterectomy (CEA).A retrospective review was conducted of all carotid interventions at a single institution between 2004 and 2006. In that time frame, 64 carotid interventions (34 CAS, 30 CEA) were performed in 63 male patients (mean age 69.5 years, range 52 to 91) with DW-MRI scans available for review. Patient characteristics, including age, gender, smoking history, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity (body mass index >30), coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, and atrial fibrillation, were documented. For the CAS patients, anatomical and procedural characteristics, including fluoroscopy time, contrast volume, performance of an arch angiogram, and lesion anatomy, were recorded. Bivariate analyses were performed to determine which parameters were associated with the occurrence of acute postprocedural microemboli found on DW-MRI by 2 blinded neuroradiologists.Twenty-four (71%) of the 34 CAS patients and 1 (3%) of the 30 CEA patients demonstrated new cerebral microemboli postoperatively. In the bivariate analyses of all patient, anatomical, and procedural characteristics, only a history of CAD was associated with an increased risk of microemboli; 20 (80%) of the 25 patients who had postprocedure microemboli had CAD compared to 18 (46%) of 39 patients without microemboli (p=0.007). Twenty (53%) of the 38 (59%) patients with CAD developed microemboli compared to 5 (19%) of the 26 patients without CAD (p=0.007). All other patient, procedural, and anatomical characteristics were not found to be independent risk factors predictive of postprocedure microemboli.CAS with distal protection carries a significantly greater risk for developing new microemboli compared to CEA. Of all the risk factors analyzed, only a history of CAD emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of microemboli following carotid intervention. This finding may influence the decision to perform CAS in patients deemed high risk solely due to the presence of CAD.

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