Surgery has been demonstrated to offer potential for cure in patients who have sporadic ZES and improved tumor-related survival in all patients who have ZES with gastrinomas larger than 2.5 cm. Techniques such as preoperative localization with SRS and intraoperative localization with duodenotomy have improved the effectiveness of surgical intervention for ZES. Future directions for investigation should include better defining the role of preoperative EUS and developing new, more sensitive techniques for preoperative localization. More research also is needed to define the appropriate indications for pancreaticoduodenectomy in ZES and to determine whether proximal vagotomy should be performed at the time of surgical exploration.
View details for PubMedID 17972563