Open cholecystectomy in the laparoendoscopic era AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY Visser, B. C., Parks, R. W., Garden, O. J. 2008; 195 (1): 108-114


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has all but replaced the traditional open approach. Hence open cholecystectomy (OC) is principally reserved for cases in which laparoscopy fails, leaving fewer surgeons with experience in the procedure required for the most challenging cases. This review of OC includes discussion of the indications for a primary open approach, conversion from laparoscopy, technical aspects of OC, and alternatives (cholecystostomy and subtotal cholecystectomy). Strategies for safe OC must be formally addressed in residency programs.

View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.04.008

View details for PubMedID 18082551