To elucidate the mechanism of persistence or recurrence of varicoceles after surgical repair by examining the venographic anatomy, and to review the efficacy of treatment of these patients with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization.From 2001 to 2007, 17 patients with persistent or recurrent varicoceles were studied by retrograde venography 4 months to 18 years after open surgical repair. All patients were then treated with NBCA glue embolization of the entire gonadal vein and the venographically identified duplications and collateral vessels, with three patients undergoing bilateral procedures. Venographic anatomy and clinical success were retrospectively analyzed.The majority of patients (65%) exhibited duplications draining into a single left gonadal vein. Duplications were most frequently found to be confined to the pelvis and inguinal canal. Communication with other retroperitoneal veins, including the renal hilar, lumbar, iliac, and circumaortic renal vein, was relatively uncommon. NBCA embolization effectively treated the main gonadal vein as well as the duplications and communications, with only one patient developing thrombophlebitic complications.Duplication of the gonadal vein in the pelvic or inguinal region with apparent incomplete ligation or resection is a common finding in patients with persistence or recurrence of varicocele after surgery. NBCA embolization effectively treats these duplicated vessels, resulting in a high rate of clinical success on short-term follow-up.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvir.2007.11.009
View details for Web of Science ID 000254760900011
View details for PubMedID 18375298