The regions that comprise the functionally connected resting-state default-mode network (DMN) in adults appear to be the same as those that are characterized by task-induced decreases in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Independent component analysis can be used to produce a picture of the DMN as an individual rests quietly in the scanner. Contrasts across conditions in which cognitive load is parametrically modulated can delineate neural structures that have decreases in activation in response to high-demand task conditions. Examination of the degree to which these networks subsume dissociable brain substrates, and of the degree to which they overlap, provides insight concerning their purpose, function, and the nature of their associations. Few studies have examined the DMN in children, and none have tested whether the neural regions that comprise the DMN during a resting condition are the same regions that show reduced activity when children engage in cognitive tasks. In this paper we describe regions that show both task-related decreases and spontaneous intrinsic activity at rest in children, and we examine the co-localization of these networks. We describe ways in which the DMN in 7-12-year-old children is both similar to and different from the DMN in adults; moreover, we document that task-induced deactivations and default-mode resting-state activity in children share common neural substrates. It appears, therefore, that even before adolescence a core aspect of task-induced deactivation involves reallocating processing resources that are active at rest. We describe how future studies assessing the development of these systems would benefit from examining these constructs as part of one continuous system.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.03.029
View details for Web of Science ID 000256620400029
View details for PubMedID 18482851