BACKGROUND: Cardiac retransplantation accounts for approximately 3% of cardiac transplantation and is considered a risk factor for increased mortality. However, factors inherent to retransplantation including previous sternotomy, sensitization, and renal dysfunction may account for the increased mortality. We assessed whether retransplantation was associated with all-cause mortality after adjusting for such patient risk factors.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult and pediatric patients enrolled in the United Network for Organ Sharing database. We identified patients undergoing cardiac retransplantation based on transplant listing diagnosis and history of previous transplant. We used propensity-score matching to identify a matched cohort undergoing initial heart transplantation.RESULTS: In total, 62,112 heart transplant recipients were identified, with a mean age 46.6 ± 19.1 years. Of these, 2,202 (3.4%) underwent late cardiac retransplantation (>1 year after initial transplant and not for acute rejection). Compared with a matched group of patients undergoing initial heart transplantation, patients undergoing late retransplantation had comparable rates of all-cause mortality at 1 year (13.6% vs 13.8%, p?=?0.733). In addition, overall mortality was not significantly different after matching (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.08, p?=?0.084). In contrast, patients undergoing retransplantation within 1 year of initial transplant or for acute rejection remained at increased risk of mortality post-transplant after similar matching (unadjusted HR 1.79, p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: After matching for comorbidities, late retransplantation in the adult population was not associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing indication acuity and comorbid conditions when considering retransplant candidacy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2019.07.001
View details for PubMedID 31378576