Tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) is a procedure that may be used to address a wide array of patellofemoral joint pathology. The most common indications for TTO include (1) patellar instability, including either a lateralized force vector or abnormal patellar alta, and (2) patellar focal cartilage defects or chondromalacia. Customization of the TTO can effectively address the patellofemoral joint pathology by modifying patellar tracking in the trochlear groove and/or altering the contact pressures experienced by the patellofemoral cartilage. TTO may be most successful when performed in conjunction with soft-tissue stabilization and/or biological augmentation of chondral injuries. Specifically, isolated anteromedialization is recommended for focal, distal lateral patellar lesions; combined anteromedialization and cartilage restoration are recommended for medial, central, and/or panpatellar cartilage pathology; medialization with soft-tissue stabilization is recommended for a lateralized tubercle position (elevated tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance); and distalization with soft-tissue stabilization is recommended for patella alta. Clinical studies have shown good to excellent results at long-term follow-up when a TTO is performed for patellar instability, whereas TTO performed for chondral defects has shown good to excellent outcomes that correlate strongly with the size and location of the chondral defect. With appropriate patient selection, TTO is a valuable tool for the treatment of patellofemoral joint pathology.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arthro.2019.05.013
View details for Web of Science ID 000478807600002
View details for PubMedID 31395155