Biomechanical Evaluation of Transosseous Rotator Cuff Repair Do Anchors Really Matter? Salata, M. J., Sherman, S. L., Lin, E. C., Sershon, R. A., Gupta, A., Shewman, E., Wang, V. M., Cole, B. J., Romeo, A. A., Verma, N. N. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC. 2013: 283–90


Suture anchor fixation has become the preferred method for arthroscopic repairs of rotator cuff tears. Recently, newer arthroscopic repair techniques including transosseous-equivalent repairs with anchors or arthroscopic transosseous suture passage have been developed.To compare the initial biomechanical performance including ultimate load to failure and localized cyclic elongation between transosseous-equivalent repair with anchors (TOE), traditional transosseous repair with a curved bone tunnel (TO), and an arthroscopic transosseous repair technique utilizing a simple (AT) or X-box suture configuration (ATX).Controlled laboratory study.Twenty-eight human cadaveric shoulders were dissected to create an isolated supraspinatus tear and randomized into 1 of 4 repair groups (TOE, TO, AT, ATX). Tensile testing was conducted to simulate the anatomic position of the supraspinatus with the arm in 60° of abduction and involved an initial preload, cyclic loading, and pull to failure. Localized elongation during testing was measured using optical tracking. Data were statistically assessed using analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test for multiple comparisons.The TOE repair demonstrated a significantly higher mean ± SD failure load (558.4 ± 122.9 N) compared with the TO (325.3 ± 79.9 N), AT (291.7 ± 57.9 N), and ATX (388.5 ± 92.6 N) repairs (P < .05). There was also a significantly larger amount of first-cycle excursion in the AT group (8.19 ± 1.85 mm) compared with the TOE group (5.10 ± 0.89 mm). There was no significant difference between repair groups in stiffness during maximum load to failure or in normalized cyclic elongation. Failure modes were as follows: TOE, tendon (n = 4) and bone (n = 3); TO, suture (n = 6) and bone (n = 1); AT, tendon (n = 2) and bone (n = 3) and suture (n = 1); ATX, tendon (n = 7).This study demonstrates that anchorless repair techniques using transosseous sutures result in significantly lower failure loads than a repair model utilizing anchors in a TOE construct.Suture anchor repair appears to offer superior biomechanical properties to transosseous repairs regardless of tunnel or suture configuration.

View details for DOI 10.1177/0363546512469092

View details for Web of Science ID 000314307500009

View details for PubMedID 23239668