Relationship Between Catheter Forces, Lesion Characteristics, "Popping," and Char Formation: Experience with Robotic Navigation System JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Di Biase, L., Natale, A., Barrett, C., Tan, C., Elayi, C. S., Ching, C. K., Wang, P., Al-Ahmad, A., Arruda, M., Burkhardt, J. D., Wisnoskey, B. J., Chowdhury, P., De Marco, S., Armaganijan, L., Litwak, K. N., Schweikert, R. A., Cummings, J. E. 2009; 20 (4): 436-440


Popping, char and perforation are complications that can occur following catheter ablation. We measured the amount of grams (g) applied to the endocardium during ablation using a sensor incorporated in the long sheath of a robotic system. We evaluated the relationship between lesion formation, pressure, and the development of complications.Using a robotic navigation system, lesions were placed in the left atrium (LA) at six settings, using a constant duration (40 seconds) and flow rate of either 17 cc/min or 30 cc/min with an open irrigated catheter (OIC). Evidence of complications was noted and lesion location recorded for later analysis at necropsy.Lesions using 30 Watts (W) were more likely to be transmural at higher (>40 g) than lower (<30 g) pressures (75% vs 25%, P < 0.001). Significantly higher number of lesions using >40 g of pressure demonstrated "popping" and crater formation as compared with lesions with 20-30 g of pressure (41% vs 15%, P = 0.008). A majority of lesions placed using higher power (45 W) with higher pressures (>40 g) were associated with char and crater formation (66.7%). No lesions using 10 g of pressure were transmural, regardless of the power. Lesions placed with a power setting less than 35 W were more likely to result in "relative" sparing of the endocardial surface than lesions at a power setting higher than 35 W (62% vs 33.3%, P = 0.02) regardless of the pressure.When using an OIC, lower power settings (

View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01355.x

View details for Web of Science ID 000264549800013

View details for PubMedID 19017335