Preclinical studies have demonstrated that post-irradiation tumor revascularization is dependent on a stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-driven process in which myeloid cells are recruited from bone marrow. Blocking this axis results in survival improvement in preclinical models of solid tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). We conducted a phase I/II study to determine the safety and efficacy of Macrophage Exclusion after Radiation Therapy (MERT) using the reversible CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients.We enrolled 9 patients to the phase I study and an additional 20 patients to phase II using a modified toxicity probability interval (mTPI) design. Plerixafor was continuously infused intravenously via PICC line for four consecutive weeks beginning at day 35 of conventional treatment with concurrent chemo-radiation. Blood serum samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic analysis. Additional studies included relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) analysis using MRI and histopathology analysis of recurrent tumors.Plerixafor was well tolerated with no drug-attributable grade 3 toxicities observed. At the maximum dose of 400 µg/kg/day, biomarker analysis found suprathreshold plerixafor serum levels and an increase in plasma SDF-1 levels. Median overall survival was 21.3 months (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 15.9, NA) with a progression-free survival of 14.5 months (95% CI 11.8, NA). MRI and histopathology support the mechanism of action to inhibit post-irradiation tumor revascularization.Infusion of the CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor was well tolerated as an adjunct to standard chemo-irradiation in newly diagnosed GBM patients and improves local control of tumor recurrences.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1421
View details for PubMedID 31537527