Development of a Reproducible Upper Limb Swelling Model. The journal of hand surgery Asian-Pacific volume Muraoka, K., Kleimeyer, J., Yao, J. 2019; 24 (4): 452–55


Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible upper limb swelling model and quantify the efficacy of changing elevation posture in swelling reduction using this model. Methods: A manual sphygmomanometer was applied to healthy volunteers' upper arms while in a dependent position for 25 minutes to create venous congestion and swelling. Seven different levels of pressure (250, 120, 100, 80, 50, 40 and 30 mmHg) were tested. Every 5 minutes, the level of swelling was measured using the volumetric method. Any complications were recorded. We then compared the swelling reduction potential among 3 limb postures (arm on head, elevation brace, and simple sling). The significance level was set at p < .05. Results: Thirty to forty milliliters of swelling was created for all pressure levels except the 250 and 30 mmHg. All complications including transient nerve palsy, pain and petechiae were severe at 250 and 120 mmHg, less severe at 100 mmHg, mild at 80 mmHg, and absent below 40 mmHg. Both the on head and elevated brace limb postures markedly and significantly decreased swelling greater than the simple sling posture. Conclusions: We found that 20 ml or greater swelling can be reliably created with a blood pressure cuff inflated to 40 mmHg on the upper limb. The on head and elevated brace postures demonstrated a greater degree of swelling reduction than the simple sling posture.

View details for DOI 10.1142/S2424835519500589

View details for PubMedID 31690206