Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 Stimulates Chondrogenic Differentiation of Posterofrontal Suture-Derived Mesenchymal Cells In Vitro PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Xu, Y., James, A. W., Longaker, M. T. 2008; 122 (6): 1649-1659


Evidence from animal studies has associated transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling with both normal and premature cranial suture fusion. However, the mechanisms whereby this pleiotropic cytokine mediates suture fusion remain uncertain. The authors established cultures of suture-derived mesenchymal cells from normally fusing (posterofrontal) and patent (sagittal) sutures and examined the in vitro effects of TGF-beta1 on these distinct cell populations.Skulls were harvested from 80 5-day-old mice. Posterofrontal and sagittal sutures were dissected, and cultures of suture-derived mesenchymal cells were established. The mitogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic effects of recombinant TGF-beta1 were then assessed on posterofrontal and sagittal suture-derived mesenchymal cells (1 to 10 ng/ml). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the effects of TGF-beta1 on gene expression.TGF-beta1 significantly decreased proliferation of both posterofrontal and sagittal suture-derived mesenchymal cells, by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays (n = 6). TGF-beta1 also inhibited osteogenesis in both suture-derived mesenchymal cells determined by alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization (n = 3 for all assays). During chondrogenic differentiation, TGF-beta1 markedly increased expression of chondrocyte-specific gene markers in posterofrontal suture-derived mesenchymal cells (Sox9, Col II, Aggrecan, and Col X) (p

View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31818cbf44

View details for Web of Science ID 000263721500006

View details for PubMedID 19050517