BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury continues to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). The World Health Organization has called for a strengthening of prehospital care in order to improve outcomes from trauma. In this study we sought to profile traumatic injury seen in the prehospital setting in India and identify predictors of mortality in this patient population.METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of a convenience sample of patients using a single emergency medical services (EMS) system for traumatic injuries across seven states in India from November 2015 through January 2016. Any patient with a chief complaints indicative of a traumatic injury was eligible for enrollment. Our primary outcome was 30-day mortality.RESULTS: We enrolled 2905 patients. Follow-up rates were 76% at 2 days, 70% at 7 days, and 70% at 30 days. The median age was 36 years (IQR: 25-50) and were predominately male (72%, N=2088), of lower economic status (97%, N=2805 used a government issued ration card) and were from rural or tribal areas (74%, N=2162). Cumulative mortality at 2, 7, and 30 days, was 3%, 4%, and 4% respectively. Predictors of 30-day mortality were prehospital abnormal mental status (OR 7.5 (95% CI: 4-14)), presence of hypoxia or hypotension (OR 4.0 (95% CI: 2.2-7)), on-scene mobility (OR 2.8 (95% CI: 1.3-6)), and multisystem injury inclusive of head injury (OR 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5)).CONCLUSIONS: EMS in an LMIC can transport trauma patients from poor and rural areas that traditionally struggle to access timely trauma care to facilities in a timeframe consistent with current international recommendations. Information readily obtained by EMTs predicts 30-day mortality within this population and could be utilized for triaging patients with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2019.11.020
View details for PubMedID 31761424