Introduction: Total joint replacement is one of the most common, safe and efficacious operations in all of surgery. However, one major long-standing and unresolved issue is the adverse biological reaction to byproducts of wear from the bearing surfaces and modular articulations. These inflammatory reactions are mediated by the innate and adaptive immune systems.Areas Covered: We review the etiology and pathophysiology of implant debris-associated inflammation, the clinical presentation and detailed work-up of these cases, and the principles and outcomes of non-operative and operative management. Furthermore, we suggest future strategies for prevention and novel treatments of implant related adverse biological reactions.Expert Commentary: The generation of byproducts from joint replacements is inevitable, due to repetitive loading of the implants. A clear understanding of the relevant biological principles, clinical presentations, investigative measures and treatments for implant-associated inflammatory reactions and periprosthetic osteolysis will help identify and treat patients with this issue earlier and more effectively. Although progressive implant-associated osteolysis is currently a condition that is treated surgically, with further research, it is hoped that non-operative biological interventions could prolong the lifetime of joint replacements that are otherwise functional and still salvageable.
View details for DOI 10.1080/17434440.2020.1702024
View details for PubMedID 31810395